The PMF applied to CEFE in Laos, Thailand and Sri Lanka, 2000
The paper combines and analyzes data from 3 GTZ supported small enterprise projects in Asian countries to test the proposed PMF for BDS: the Small Enterprise Development Project (SEDP) in Laos, the Small-scale Industry Promotion Project (SSIPP) in Thailand, and the Sri Lanka-German CEFE Program (SLGCP). All 3 projects use CEFE training methodology. The Lao project has suc-ceeded in establishing a private provider of investment/ management training and related services to individual SME and institutional (donor) clients. Based on a Gemini survey, systematic targeting of market segments was done, and a range of training products including products for repeat use were developed and introduced. In the given environment and with only 1 provider existing in the country for this type of service, outreach has been considerable. The Thai project works with a diversified structure of private and public providers. Like Laos, it excels in development of adapted training prod-ucts. For sustainability of the services established it counts on mobilization of substantial participants fees and at the same time on public sector contributions. The Sri Lankan project achieved a break-through in outreach when it diversified its implementation structure to work with 10 private, NGO and public sector providers which market training to various institutional clients in all parts of the island. Like in the other cases, SME clients pay fees, which don't cover cost, and the institutional market for entrepreneurship/ management training contributes towards sustainability of the service. A 'decreasing subsidy policy' has been pursued and like in Thailand the subsidy content from GTZ contributions to the project funds was cut down to around 22%. In impact monitoring the Lao project made a sys-tematic attempt to estimate changes in value added; all projects have sales data, business start-up and expansion rates as well as customer satisfaction data.